Gender in Games

Of the Twine games suggested in class, the one that held all of my attention was The Uncle Who Works for Nintendo. In my intrigue towards the narrative, I spent the entire class period only playing this game in attempts to decode every ending possible. With many trials and a little assistance from the internet, I managed to make it to the end and unlock all of the standard endings and an additional easter egg ending. Within my gameplay, I found myself drawn to playing the character as female because of my own female identification and because I found that the storyline for the character under a female name was easier to navigate with emotional vulnerability to get the results I was looking for. I am unsure that ease of gameplay as a female character was correlated to being female myself or if the portrayal of emotional vulnerability just so happened to create faster results.

As part of the female narrative, commentary about the involvement of women in the gaming community is offered from the female friend/antagonist. Notes of being bullied for being interested in gaming were present as a trigger for the friend which eventually led her to make a pact with an entity that consumes people for power. Although gaming for women was presented as a taboo idea and the player had the option to agree or disagree with that statement, the idea was still interwoven in a way that made the notion clear to the player that this was a concept worth thinking about.

The character in The Uncle Who Works for Nintendo is an adolescent. Even though (female) children are sometimes present in AAA gaming, from what I have seen, female characters are often adults and come with tropes of falling in love with the main protagonist, being sexualized, being saved, or not being relevant. There is no denying that the gaming industry is masculine catered and the purpose of women characters in this sphere are to appeal to men. Within the arcade games of the 1980s and 1990s, game mechanics were very limited. In order to create narrative, women characters were used as motivators for men to encourage gameplay. Although characters like Lara Croft have been considered as token female characters that show strength, many of the characteristics and gameplay mechanics are masculine based. For Lara, the only difference is in her appearance of short-shorts, leg holsters, and a tank top obviously meant to accentuate her cleavage. In recent years, there has been an influx of female protagonists in games. However, in the spheres of game franchises like Tomb Raider, Assassin’s Creed, and Uncharted show women as capable of men but also remove qualities associated with women like empathy instead of killing on whims. Characteristics like empathy often are exploited as weaknesses or the gameplay does not move forward.

Women have been been present in the gaming industry from the very beginning. However, this fact is often ignored in the overall industry, especially now that the majority of “gamers” are now women. Since women spend more time interacting with puzzle games on phone applications, the gaming community does not take them seriously as “gamers.” To be considered a “gamer,” the qualifying games in question are more likely to be combat and strategy based. Other games do not hold the same kind of weight and competitiveness in the industry. By having a history of masculinity, the gaming industry has barely begun to shift to female characters of substance. Characters like Elena Frazer and Nadine Ross in Uncharted: The Lost Legacy proved that it is possible for female characters to be equally strong and vulnerable. If the industry keeps moving in this direction, women representation will positively develop tenfold.

Gender in Games

                Women in AAA title tend to be much more masculine in comparison to non-AAA title. In arcade games, most women are there as eye candy, and some have nothing to do with the game at all. If they are not there for eye candy then they are in need of rescue. This is when we see women in the usual damsel in distress character. One example of this is in Mario Brothers when you have to rescue Princess Peach from Bowser. This is something that is not seen in AAA games today because they are moving away from that stereotype of women needing a man to save them.
               Things have gotten better for women in video games. They are no longer seen as the damsel in distress, and can now do the same or more as men do in games. The downside to this is that it can and has made women more masculine in the games which they lose some femininity. But this is a step in a better direction than the helpless woman. Women in real life are not helpless, and if they are that is because society pushes that on them. Women of the Western frontier were not fragile creatures. Many had to step up when the husband was gone, sick, or dead, in order to provide for the family. This included hunting, farming, and protecting the family from not just the harsh living conditions but from hostile people as well. The only thing games nowadays need to work on is finding a balance of between the femininity in a woman and them not being a helpless damsel in distress.

Gender in Games and Bandicoots

The presence of women in video games often designed with high sexappeal to entice male gamers. These female characters are designed by men formen. There were few notable female video game characters that emerged in thelate 1990s to early 2000s that carry over to present day. The most recognizedfemale video game character to come out of this era was Lara Croft from theTomb Raider series beginning in 1996. From the introduction the character 22years ago, the Tomb Raider had 12 games that had their success tied to LaraCroft and her assets. Nintendo introducing Super Mario 64 in 1996 also added toa damsel in distress stereotype of female characters like Princess Peach. Oftenseen as the objective and nothing more, hardly ever seeing any form ofcharacter development other than falling in love with the video gameprotagonist for rescuing her. Interestingly enough, Halo: Combat Evolvedreleasing in 2001 introduced a female character with a vital role to our mainSpartan John 117, or better known as Master Chief. Cortana is an ArtificialIntelligence onboard a ship when given to our protagonist for protection. Overthe course of 5 games, Master Chief and Cortana fight enemies all whiledeveloping an interesting romantic relationship. This role of a female character can also be compared to that of a tool and character foil. Cortana isonly contacted when our protagonist needs help with his missions and developingher character allowed personality developments to unfold for players to feelmore connected with Master Chief.

A closer look at a popular platform game from this era was Sony’s Crash Bandicoot franchise.

In 1998’s Crash Bandicoot Warped, brought the introduction to being able to play as Crash’s sister, Coco, in a total of 6 levels out of 25 that includes a boss fight playing as Coco. In these levels she is not given the full opportunity to walk, spin, jump and complete levels as Crash’s character can. Her character’s game mechanic was limited to levels that had her riding a tiger, Jet-ski or airplane and simply navigating through the level with a vehicle to possibly make her character more interesting to male gamers.

Flash forward to the 2017 Crash remastered collection, players can now play as Coco in Crash Bandicoot warped and play every level Crash can with the same skill set, but the levels designated for Coco cannot be played with Crash. Coco was not designed with sex appeal in mind, rather just Crash’s younger unskilled sister. The simple and wholesome reason for this change was simply to acknowledge Crash’s female fans that now have the chance to play as their beloved hero’s sister.

Oregon Trail

What is the narrative structure of the game and how is it told?

When playing Oregon Trail, the player’s main goal is to safely bring his or her party through the Oregon Trail. Traveling party across the American west starting in the late 1840’s. During the journey, the player is taught about the pioneer life of the 19th century and some the realities of it. The player has to make key decisions ranging from how to efficiently travel, how to hunt and gather food, and also make sure the health of your party remains intact. On the 2,000 mile journey, the player can face starvation, natural disasters, diseases, and even death.     

What is the primary historical argument for the game? How is the West represented?  

The historical argument of Oregon Trail is show the the realities of pioneer life and how difficult is once was to travel great lengths in the United States. Traveling during the 19th century posed a great theratto travelers because it was very dangerous and unpredictable. By participating in this journey, a person is at risk of death due to the scarcity of food and lack of supplies. It took a substantial amount work to prepare for a journey like this and that work only intensifies while the person is on it. Throughout history, the West is also romanized as being this place where you can start fresh and you will have a better life. Oregon Trail exposes that notion because they show the process of getting their and the hardships the travelers have to endure to reach their destination. Even by getting to the destination, the player does not make it without losing members of their party due to disease and starvation.       

What was the overall effectiveness of the game from a history education stand point?

Oregon Trail is effective in showing what it was like traveling westward in America during the 19th century, so it could be used as a pedagogical tool as source material to provide students with context. The games gives the player an insight on how these travels were managed by gathering food, collecting resources, and caring for the sick. Realistic measures must be taken during each season and if not major consequences ensue. It contest the notion of the West as being entertaining and shows that it took a lot of sacrifices for people to eventually end up here. The graphics add more context to the game because the user gets to experience what the geographically environment was like for the travellers.  

Game Critique Blog Post: A Second Glance: the COD series

A Second Glance: the COD Series

            Call of Duty has brought gamers together in a world developed purely on a fictional history adapted from some of the world’s greatest conflicts. In Call of Duty 2, the gamer takes control of various protagonists in a World War II setting meant to highlight the fictional narratives of Soviet, British, and American forces during the time of the war.This is done as the player takes on such roles in the first-person shooter perspective. FPS has found its home in titles within the COD series as graphics and game mechanics have developed over time. If there is an examination of the historical context found within the title Call of Duty 2, then it is clear that this game was an early introduction to dynamic changes in the story-telling ability of games that provide historical events as the basis for creating immersive and narrative-driven fictional worlds.

The Call of Duty 2 campaign seemed like the most historical context any person at the time could gather from a form of media. At the least this was very much my case. To this day, I still have this game to thank for shaping my understanding of the American forces and the events on Omaha Beach on D-Day in Normandy, France. A great example of another form of media that supports events that occur in-game is the similar interpretation by Steven Spielberg in his epic Saving Private Ryan. I did not watch this movie until my early adulthood, but it lent an unspoken credibility to the game as I reminisced where it was I had seen the events unfold once before. Although the player is continually forced to survive computer-assisted waves of enemies, the player campaign never lets you escape the war zone. The game was released in 2005 and I had the good luck to have a friend who happened to acquire a copy for PC he would let us play to our heart’s content. The game succeeds in providing more insight on the events you participate with in-game by supporting the historical context through the use of war-time footage that actively engages the player in a history lesson of sorts. In comparison to more recent titles, Call of Duty 2 seems more concerned with capturing this history for gamers in a constructive manner through these mission introductions that include the footage whereas newer titles have already hooked the masses into shorter and brief histories less concerned with the way history is used in-game.

The scope of Call of Duty 2 is refreshing as it brought new and well-placed game mechanics not seen before with similar titles. The title looks to make the gamer feel like these soldiers who must survive various situations that can be tied to the struggles of real Allied forces at the time of WWII. Many notable moments appear as you storm the beaches of Normandy, France as an American soldier, provide resistance in Africa with British forces, and overlook devastation committed by German forces against Soviet opposition. The various mechanics that are introduced serve to make each of these campaigns livelier through an immersive takeaway assisted by story elements. This means that the game worked to convince the gamer they were the soldier that needed to survive to win and ensure the game’s finale is aligned to the actual events in history.For this, the COD series excels with no other comparable alternative at the time of this titles release and only serves to actively enforce a standard within gaming that sets expectations for the manner in which historical context, fictional narratives, and gaming mechanics work to represent historical accuracy.

            COD is concerned with developing a world that is shaped by an American culture content with pseudo-histories that prove underdeveloped in their prioritization of accurate historical representation. The game retells these stories and gamers want to play for hours even if they already have knowledge of the past that they are now involved with differently through the frameworks of Call of Duty 2. It is enjoyable to adhere to Western ideas of heroism from complicated events such as those that took placed in WWII. It serves as a weak appeal to history that gamers seem to have no problem developing further. All in all, the game does have a use of history that provides insight to events of the past, but this media outlet risks accurate representation in its active inclusion of these events. There is no doubt that this FPS title has reshaped the way developers today use history in-game by creating new representations in video games of historical events which progresses the way we accept these representations and the way historical context will either improve or become diminished through the way the gamer responses to this use of history.

Final Reflection on 306

Playing the Past

            While walking through the faculty office building one day, a flyer caught my attention, the flyer pictured teenagers huddling around an arcade game and the paper read, “History 306: Playing the Past.” As I read the course description I became enticed by the idea of a video game class that focused on historical narratives and content as I believe pop culture is becoming one of the major sources of historical content. The course may seem unorthodox from the outside looking in, but it was enriched with historical content such as masculinity in America, colonialism, imperialism, how you can pull historical narratives from fictional works, and how to create a fictional work using historical content.

            History 306 taught how masculinity not only can be found in video games but also how video games impacted masculinity in America. In games such as Red Dead Redemption II, masculinity is exerted by the characters in the game through their wielding of guns, gunfights, and bar fights. Although a fictional video game, its representation of masculinity is historically accurate because, in the nineteenth century, men in the Wild West of America exerted their masculinity this way. The course also taught how video games also impacted masculinity in American society. It was intriguing to learn about how video games gave gamers (primarily men) a masculine identity they didn’t have before. This identity would be attributed to factors such as arcade systems and the gaming community’s promotion of sexualized women. By doing this, it gave gamers the idea that that’s the type of woman they could impress by competing and winning in gaming tournaments.[1]

            While taking this course, terms such as colonialism were constantly discussed.  As I learned, colonialism is constantly put into games, whether directly or indirectly. Colonialism is found in games where everything is a resource that must be collected, games that condone and accept the killing of anyone who isn’t you, and games where consumption is prioritized over sustainability. Colonialism is also found in video games where exploration is considered noble and a just cause in order to find your player a home or a place to exploit for monetary value.[2]These multiple types of colonialism can be found in games such as The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild,Skyrim, and also Red Dead Redemption II.

            As part of the final for the course, the class had to come up with and design a video game that had historical content within it. For our group, I tried to think of a historical event that could incorporate everything we had learned so far in the course. The group believed topics such as colonialism and masculinity would be good to incorporate within the game and with that, I felt a game about the Trail of Tears would be perfect. It was hard initially thinking of a way to have a game that would be intriguing, worth playing, and contain historical information. Then came the idea of having a narrative based game that follows a military officer and his experience during the Trail of Tears. After we came up with the background to the character it was then time to draw up the storyboard and figure out how to incorporate historical information into a fictional game. The group decided that the historical information would have to come from the interactions between our player, and the other groups in the game such as the military officers and the Natives being escorted from their native lands.  For example, in one of the interactions of the game, our character hears the Natives talk about their disapproval of the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Though this would come as no surprise to anyone, this dialogue within the game came from a source the group found about a Native chief named John Ross, who during the nineteenth century went to the Supreme Court and protested the Removal Act policies.[3]There were also small details that required researching, such as where the Natives were when they got picked up and dropped off (if the player reached that ending). We had our character and his fellow military officers pick up the Natives in Georgia because after researching the Creek natives in America during the nineteenth century, we found that they primarily resided in Georgia during that time.[4]I believe those small details and the historical content that comes from the interactions between the characters in the game, made for an intriguing game that highlighted parts of the Trail of Tears that people might not have been aware. 

            In conclusion, the History 306 course may seem unorthodox from the outside looking in, but it was enriched with historical content such as masculinity in America, colonialism, imperialism, how one can pull historical narratives from fictional works, and how to create a fictional work using historical content. I believe that video games offer multiple ways to teach historical events, agents, and also teach how historical narratives can be pulled from fictional works. I would highly recommend the course and hope for the continuation of it for many years because it is my belief that pop culture is becoming one of the main sources for historical content in the world.


[1]Sean Smith, Pixilated women: representations of women, sex, and sexuality in video games and historical simulations. (Lecture, Long Beach, CA, October 24, 2018).

[2]Sean Smith, World History and cultural representation in video games. (Lecture, Long Beach, CA, October 03, 2018).

[3]John Ross,Cherokee Chief John Ross Denounces U.S. Removal Policy, 1836. in Major Problems in American Relations Volume 1: To 1920, edited by Dennis Merrill and Thomas G. Patterson. Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Publishing, 2009.

[4]Robbie Ethridge, Creek Country: The Creek Indians and Their World. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2003. (Accessed October 21, 2018). ProQuest EbookCentral.https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/csulb/reader.action?docID=837903&query=

Gender in Games

The market for video games is heavily geared toward men seeing how the most popular games are centered around violence. As a result, women end up being pushed to the sidelines and are often oversexualized. It is also a lot easier to create and play as male characters as opposed to female ones. For example, Street Fighter, compared to the amount of male characters to choose from there are very few female characters to choose. Even amongst the female characters, their breasts tend to be oversized or they are wearing extra revealing clothes which is something that is common across almost the entire gaming industry. Even in AAA title games, women tend to be backburner NPCS and are portrayed in their conventional societal roles as housemakers, wives, damsels in distress, etc. Even in the game Unmanned, you play through the eyes of a army pilot that’s living through everyday life, desensitized to the world around you but when a female character is introduced her sole purpose was to give the player an opportunity to have an affair.

For men things are a lot different. The action in most games such as Assassin’s Creed or Call of Duty reinforce the ideas that masculinity is defined by the concept of power. “Manliness” is measured by how many kills you get and the mechanics of these games support that strongly, that the role of men is to be all muscle and attack. This is supported by the character design of most males in AAA titles. Take Geralt from The Witcher as an example, his facial features set across the message that to be cool and to be manly you have to have big muscles, athletic, and optional scars.

In the cases where females are remotely unconventional and are actually capable, the world around them see them as incompetent, trying to achieve something that is not practical for a female. Women are also used as reward in these games for completing missions, like in The Witcher 2, which imply that the sole purpose of women is to be a source of pleasure for men.

Nowadays, things are better for women and their portrayal in games. Sure they’re still being oversexualized but there are some newer female protagonists that defy the old image of women in games. Take Ellie from The Last of Us as an example. A 14-year old girl who is brave, not oversexualized for good reason, resourceful, and is physically capable on her own without needing to be saved by a male. However, in most fighting games such as Street Fighter, Dragon Ball Fighter Z, and Super Smash Bros, female characters are and will likely continue to be less desired because their combos and skill sets are less effective than male characters in competition. This implies that usefulness of female characters will be another issue to deal with in this entire process. With time, it is potentially possible for women to be portrayed in better light without being sexualized or objectified in games.

Women and Gender in Games

In twine and non-AAA games women are subjected to the same types of generalizations.As “Unmanned”  so boldly displayed in its portrayal of military man struggling with different aspects of life, the same stereotypical characterizations are used. On the one hand the playable character has his wife, at home with his child, and on the other he is being tempted by his female co-worker in a not so subtle way. Two overused and played out caricatures for women in video game can be seen here. Their story arcs are entirely dependent on what the white male character does in the game. These trends have remained as a pervasive strand in all games, and their effects should not be underestimated. Games that tend to do poor jobs of inserting stereotypical characters such as Grand Theft Auto, especially the older editions, but GTA V is pretty bad as well. Portray women sometimes as prostitutes and in other variously degrading roles. While the overuse of stereotypical women in games largely stems from an earlier time it still exists. Though progress does seem to be moving away from such notions.

            In “Against All Odds” another non-AAA title that does a much better job at portraying a female character. The player at least has the option to choose a female character. Truthfully, upon play through of the game it makes no difference whether one chooses the male or female character. The seriousness of this game creates a feeling of equal disdain and suffering for either gender. In providing a number of scenarios that could befall anyone, or any society the player can choose to be a female in any of them. Providing a welcome relief as too many games restrict the player to a single male character. It does seem like real progress has been made in this area though in the past few years with games such as Assassin’sCreed: Odyssey and even Battlefield V. By inserting females into the battlefield arena, the creators of Battlefield are taking some historical license for sure, but why should that really matter? These games are meant to be fun too, and many women play them. There is not claimed intent by DICE that the game is even meant to be accurate historically.

            Assassin’s Creed similarly in bothOrigins and Odyssey installments have increased female agency to some degree.Origins pushes the narrative of the Assassins further back in time than it had before, and attributed the establishment of the Assassin’s as an entity through Aya, and not Bayek; spoiler alert. Odyssey pushes the story back even further to the time of Athens and Sparta. The game begins though with the choice of a female or male lead. So it does appear that the times are changing in regards to both AAA as well as non-AAA games. Though a game such as Odyssey has the option to be a female character she ultimately does not play any differently than her male counterpart. But why should she? Can the game not be just as enjoyable as a female character that can run, jump, and assassinate all the same? It certainly should be, but as aforementioned, the awareness of a need for female agency and depiction in games seems to be growing.

Gender: From Indie to AAA

In the games we’ve seen in class, women have been shown in differing lights compared to AAA titles. The Twine based games have a more artistic and emotional basis. Her Pound of Flesh, for example, doesn’t describe the player character giving a more common feeling of “what would I do” for the player. Like a god creating life, we put undescribed character in our image as these games are making us choose. It shows  a creation in a lab recreating a woman who’s long gone (by death or other meansseems unknown) but the character’s feeling of longing for them drives the game.The game is described as horror, but the horror is heartache, a fear we allhave but won’t all admit. Moving on, Queersin Love at the End of the World had a profound concept of being timed. Onlyten seconds to get as far into the story as you can. All the options I playedwere tender and close. None of the violence and other themes that we’ve grownup playing while never batting an eye at them. The frantic nature of the gamecaptures those last seconds of the world before the end and asking what youwould do in that situation. It’s a question that passes through our minds andnot experience that a AAA studio normally would present.

Contrasting these small, open sourced projects is the corporate AAA market. Focusing on the word market as that is what drives the space forward. Not projects of passion not beholden to share-holders and some lawyers. As a AAA studio is run by big corporations who see art and message as secondary to sales. The art will normally take a back seat to something more for the common consumer. A great example is the Assassin’s Creed series and their recent installment. Kassandra from AC: Odyssey is viewed as a manifest of representation, but she is just a masculine representation of what a corporation thinks a strong woman is. She’s attractive, muscular, and fearless. Fighting mythical creatures, government and thousands of soldiers just for a good amount of money. She swears and acts tough with no real moment of weakness. Basically, she’s Lara Croft. How she looks and acts, is more appealing to men than women. It’s a female skin over Alexios, her story doesn’t change because she’s a woman in the highly misogynist Ancient Greece it just stays static. I’d argue that a stronger female character is not physically strong but instead strengthen by his or her experiences. This plays into games like Queers in Love at the End of the World, those who already have a struggle in life just because they express a human emotion of love. Leading to it all ending in a moment’s notice and knowing it will happen. Other games focus completely on masculinity and put the player in almost an action movie like setting. Characters with strength that is unreal and mental fortitude that is even more impossible. Normally adding moments of feeling that are more of a plot point than acting as a catalyst for actual human feeling.

In gaming, women are normally created to appeal to men. Normally they are designed in a masculine sense and have little if no real femininity. While the recent influx of women in game studios is slowly helping that, we have a long way to go. Characters like Max from Life Is Strange is a start but for every Max there are 4 Lara Crofts. The stigma of a beautiful badass is giving an illusion of feminism in a world that fears looking weak. However, weakness is what makes us stronger, Celeste shows that. We don’t need stronger female leads, we need more people overcoming “weakness” in gaming.

Gender in Games

            The gaming community has always been a place perceived to be dominated by men and their need to exert their masculinity. Although the gaming community has been perceived this way, it is actually women who play video games more than men do. Although women play video games more than men do, there are hardly any AAA title games that have female leads and women are usually sexualized in both AAA, indie, and twine narrative-based games. 

When exploring gender roles in games, it is best to play multiple and different types of games. If trying to focus on women and their role in games, twine games offer a vast number of games to try out. One game in particular titled Slime Daughter, serves as a good example of how women are represented in games. In Slime Daughter, the gamer plays as a woman who leaves her home to go stay with who the game calls the “Skull Empress.” Immediately following the meeting between this Empress and the player, there is a scene demonstrating how overly sexualized women are in games. The game narrates that one of Empress’s aides tells the gamer to come to the Empress’s palace and then shows the same aide walking over back to the Empress and begins, “running her tongue along the effluvial curves” of the Empress’s skull. As the game goes along more of these sexualized scenes occur through the narration, such as when the gamer is eating berries and, “Their juice stains your fingers. It lingers on your mouth.”[1]

The way women are sexualized in indie or twine games is also similar to how they are sexualized in some AAA games. In Rockstar Game’s Red Dead Redemption II, the women in the gamer’s gang of outlaws are often sexualized. In one mission, the gamer has to rescue one of his female companions from a man who is about to abuse her due to her faking to be a prostitute. Although the women in the game do tend to fall into certain gender roles in the game, they are shown exerting their femininity and independence similar to the men characters by carrying around guns and guarding the camp.

The twenty-first century has produced games were women are treated and have the same abilities, rights, and in some cases, the same power as male characters. One game that does in particular is Bethesda Game Studio’s game titled Skyrim. In Skyrim, the gamer can choose between being a male or female character at the beginning of the game. This choice doesn’t influence the missions given to the gamer nor does it influence your abilities and or strength. The only difference between choosing a male or female character in the game is that the gamer may either be called “Las” or “Lad” by some of the NPCs. This is completely different from how women are represented in not only Slime Daughterbut also in the games of the past, such as Tomb Raider that released in 1997. Although a game showing a strong female lead, during the promoting of Tomb Raider, the game’s main protagonist Laura Croft was shown in a bikini holding a gun in a magazine.[2]

In conclusion, although women play video games more than men do, there are hardly any AAA title, indie, or twine games that have female leads and the games that do include women, usually sexualize them or put them in inferior roles compared to their male counterparts. The gaming community has changed from the twentieth century to the twenty-first century slightly however due to censorship on AAA games but there are games such as Skyrim, that show that women characters can be just as strong and intelligent as their male counterparts and don’t need to be sexualized.

Bibliography

Beres, Damon. “Leading Women Are Becoming Less Sexualized In Video Games, Study Finds.” Huffington Post, 2016, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/women-sexualized-video-games-study_us_579b61cde4b08a8e8b5da7cd(Accessed December 12, 2018).

“Slime Daughter”, http://slimedaughter.com/games/twine/wtwla/ (Accessed Dec 12, 2018).


[1]http://slimedaughter.com/games/twine/wtwla/ (Accessed Dec 12, 2018).

[2]Damon Beres, “Leading Women Are Becoming Less Sexualized In Video Games, Study Finds.” Huffington Post, 2016, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/women-sexualized-video-games-study_us_579b61cde4b08a8e8b5da7cd (Accessed December 12, 2018).